The French publication of Locke's Treatises in 1724 also played an important role in influencing both pre-Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary ideology.. The Bastille was a prison and the wall were 100 ft. high. After King Louis XVII was found guilty for high treason, he was sentenced for the death penalty. The morning of July 14, 1789, the Bastille, a prison the … This was a terrible blow to the old enemy of France, England, but also to the finan… Others, including François Bluche, argue that Louis XIV cannot be held responsible for problems that would emerge over 70 years after his death. First, despite the Bourbons' attempts to limit their power, the nobility still wielded significant influence at Court; when Silhouette, a Controller-General, suggested taxing luxury items, he was removed from office due to noble opposition. The deeper causes for its collapse are more difficult to establish. The clergy and the nobility formed the first two Estates and were the most privileged classes in the French society.  Conversely, the lack of a constitutional monarchy meant that the French monarch was a target for any popular discontent against the government. Two years after the royal family was placed under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace, they finally escaped. His tactics for bringing the nobility under control included inviting them to stay at his extravagant Palace of Versailles and participate in elaborate court rituals with a detailed code of etiquette. In practice, the power of the monarchy was typically checked by the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church, institutions such as the judicial parlements, national and local customs and, above all, the threat of insurrection.  However, whereas rural peasants could at least sustain themselves with their farms, the poor harvests had a much worse impact on Paris, which played a major role in the rise of the sans-culottes. Given their powerful economic position, and their aspirations on a class-wide level, the bourgeois wanted to ascend through the social hierarchy, formalised in the Estate system. Economic Cause: Though resolved, the failed experiment led to deep distrust of the monarchy, with rumours of their intention to starve the poor both prevalent and widely believed. Realizado por Viviana Ceballos, LÍNEA DEL TIEMPO: INVENTOS IMPORTANTES DE LA REVOLUCIÓN INDUSTRIAL, Evolución Histórica Constitución Venezolana, Linea del tiempo del período del porfiriato en México, PERSONAJES DESTACADOS DE LA INGENIERIA INDUSTRIAL, Línea del tiempo sobre los gobiernos de Perón, La historia de México desde 1821 hasta 1910, Inventions of the Industrial Revolution 1800-1920, See more Science and Technology timelines. Following this, their popularity declined further, and the Jacobin party voiced its wish to end the monarchy in France. France was one of the richest and most powerful nations even though they were facing some economic difficulties.  France faced an impossible dilemma: how to both maintain its international position and status by engaging in these conflicts, and fund them with an archaic and grossly inefficient system. Traditionally, a king could quell a recalcitrant parlement by conducting a lit de justice ceremony, in which he would appear there in person to demand that they register an edict. As a result, the nobility and clergy could always overrule the Third Estate. As such, there was significant social tension between the dominant classes at the time of the French Revolution. ), The Year Without a Summer? Furet and others argue that the direct influence of Enlightenment ideas only played a part after the Revolution had begun, insofar as it was used to justify revolutionary action and fill the lack of central, guiding ideology that disillusionment with the monarchy had created.  Such entryism resulted in significant social tension, as the nobles were angered that these bourgeoisie were entering their ranks (despite often having been bourgeois themselves one or two generations previously) and the bourgeoisie were angered that the nobles were trying to prevent them ascending and being disdainful even when they did ascend. The outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 was the result of a combination of factors that historians still debate. However, the nobility refused to help - their power and influence had been steadily reduced since the reign of Louis XIV - and hence Louis was forced to rely upon the Estates-General. They then gathered in a nearby tennis court swearing that they to " never cry to the King, and to meet quietly when the circumstances demand, until the constituion of France is happily singing.".  Historians generally describe his reign as a period of stagnation, foreign policy setbacks and growing popular discontent against the monarchy. As such, when the Estates-General was called, its rigid organisation into Third Estate and Second Estate conflicted with the new, informal organisation, and caused dissent; the Third Estate had attained equal status to the nobility, in their view, and when they demanded that the Estates meet as equals, the King's refusal triggered their secession from royal authority. Turgot abolished the regulations surrounding the food supply, which to this point had been strictly controlled by the royal police: they monitored the purity of bread flour, prevented price manipulation via hoarding, and controlled the inflows and outflows of grain to regions facing good and bad harvests. Louis Philippe ruled between 1830 and 1848. They lasted five days. Third estates protested against this proposal but as each estate have one vote, the king rejected this appeal. , Moreover, Lucas argues that many fiefs were owned by non-noble—in 1781 22% of the lay seigneurs in Le Mans weren't noble—and that commercial families, the bourgeoisie, also invested in land. ", Wood, C.A., 1992.  Along the same lines, Behrens contests the traditional view of the failure of the tax system, arguing that the nobles in reality paid more tax than their English counterparts and that only one of the privileges enumerated by the Encyclopédie Méthodique relates to taxation. It represented the whole social body. Rapid population growth and restrictions caused by the inability to adequately finance government debt resulted in economic depression, unemployment and high food prices. Free to print or download (PPT, PPTX, or PDF). Explain the fundamental causes of the french revolution. Political, social, and economic conditions in France contributed to the discontent felt by many French people-especially those of the third estate. Political Cause: It was replaced by a consulate. Furthermore, significant resentment was felt by the poorer members of the Third Estate (industrial and rural labourers), largely due to vast increases in the cost of living. Many histories of the French Revolution, beginning with those written in the era itself, assumed, almost axiomatically, that the ideas of the philosophes had caused the “coming” of the event. The total fiscal deficit reached 140 million in 1787.. French Society in Revolution, 1789–1799. From 1741 to 1785, there was a 62% increase in real cost of living. They had to pay various dues to their noble landlords, taxes which were often disproportionately high in comparison to their income. They were each dominated by the regional nobility. The failure of the escape plan was ultimately due to the king's inability to commit to a plan, and the queen's wish for the entire family to remain together. The representatives of the people of France organized a declaration that states the sole causes of public miseries and corrupt governments. The basic cause of the French Revolution was the fact that the common people of France were not given any sort of real voice in their own government. The political system of France before the French Revolution was called the "Ancien Regime." 37–39. These factors include cultural change, normally associated with the Enlightenment; social change and financial and economic difficulties; and the political actions of the involved parties. The french revolution started because most people were denied basic rights because the King and Queen cared only for themselves, the economic crisis in France, and social injustices. There were three classes represented by the Estates General: the nobles, clergy and the rest of the population or the so-called Third Estate. This event marked the end of the French Revolution. He was executed during a ceromony with 21 others on June 28, 1794. The Enlightenment ideas were particularly popularised by the influence of the American War of Independence on the soldiers who returned, and of Benjamin Franklin himself, who was a highly dynamic and engaging figure in the French court when he visited. The British Agricultural Revolution refers to the unprecedented rise … Three days later, when they arrived to the courts, they were shocked that King Louis XVI had locked them out. Over the course of the 18th century, France experienced the unfolding of pathetically sad developments and unprecedented public Causes of the French Revolution 1. International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state 2. Although the French and American people had several distinct and differing motives for revolting against their ruling governments, some similar causes led to both revolutions, including the following:Economic struggles: Both the Americans and French dealt with a taxation system they found discriminating and unfair. A large group of craftsmmen and salesmen, who were mad at the king, decided to steal about 28,000 rifles and attack the Bastille. In the 1780’s the population of France numbered about 24,700,000, and it was divided into three estates. The patricians began the Revolution, the plebeians completed it". Turgot was forced to restore regulation and repress the riots. The French Revolution demonstrated the power of the common people in a manner that no subsequent government has ever allowed itself to forget--if only in the form of untrained, improvised, conscript armies, defeating the conjunction of the finest and most experienced troops of the old regimes.  This caused rampant speculation and a breakdown of interregional import-export dynamics; famine and dissent (the Flour War) ensued. There was a complete break with the Age of Reason and a new kind of literature known as the Romantic Revival came into exist with the publication of Lyrical Ballad (1798). Lucas asserts that the bourgeois and nobility were not in fact that distinct, basing his argument with the bourgeois entryism and the suggestion that it makes little sense for the bourgeois to attack a system that they are trying to become part of. It also explained the sacred and inaleinable rights of man. 58–77, Dorinda Outram, "The Enlightenment", 2013, p.45, John Hardman, "The Life of Louis XVI", 2016, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Causes_of_the_French_Revolution&oldid=992489942, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 15:12. His beheading was the first of many in the reign of terror. The French monarchy was financially in trouble since the end of the reign of Louis XIV, the Sun-King, in 1715. Over this time peroid over 16,000 french citezens were guillotined. The poverty of many noble families meant that they married bourgeois families; the nobles gained bourgeois wealth, while the bourgeoisie gained noble status. The Court was deeply in debt, which in conjunction with a poor financial system, created a crisis. Lines of distinction between classes were tightly drawn, and opportunities for social advancement were very few. Beyond these relatively established facts regarding the social conditions surrounding the French Revolution, there is significant dissent among historians. There are many factors that explain the Revolution, but I will try to synthesize the causes, as requested, into six main ones. The French Revolution of 1789 had many long-range causes. The massacres started on September 2, 1792. Social Cause: The French Revolution began in 1789 as a popular movement to reform the 'absolute' rule of the monarch, Louis XVI. Jul 14, 1789. The kings Louis XV and Louis XVI did not manage to stop the wars campaigns despite of their proclaimed will of peace. The French Monarchs... 2. This covers the entire French Revolution (1789-1799) from the Old Regime, through the Tennis Court Oath, Reign of Terror, and death of Robespierre, to the coup d'etat of Napoleon in 1799. Main causes of the French Revolution: 1) The social and psychological burdens of the many wars of the 18th century, which in the era before the dawn of nationalism were exclusively the province of the monarchy. These bourgeoisie played a fundamental role in the French economy, accounting for 39.1% of national income despite only accounting for 7.7% of the population. Additionally, France’s involvement in the American Revolution, along with extravagant spending practices by King Louis XV… The Storming of the Bastille is celebrated on the 14th of July is Bastille Day. The Storming of the Bastille. 1 As social and other historians undermined that theory, intellectual historians moved in new directions, particularly toward the social history of ideas.  Alfred Cobban describes the Parlement of Paris as "though no more in fact than a small, selfish, proud and venal oligarchy, [it] regarded itself, and was regarded by public opinion, as the guardian of the constitutional liberties of France. ", Having already obstructed tax reform proposals during the reign of Louis XV, the parlements would play a major role in obstructing Louis XVI's attempts to resolve the debt crisis. The French Revolution was caused by many factors; some were significant and played a large role while others were of minor consequence. The parlements were regional courts of appeal which had the de facto power to block the implementation of legislation in their respective provinces.  In order to service the debt, given the Crown could find no more willing lenders, Louis attempted to call upon the nobility via an Assembly of Notables.  This resulted in a breakdown of the stratification that still divided the bourgeois and the nobles, fundamentally changing France's social organisation. Marxist historians, such as Lefebvre and Soboul, see the social tensions described here as the main cause of the Revolution, as the Estates-General allowed them to manifest into tangible political action; the bourgeoisie and the lower classes were grouped into the Third Estate, allowing them to jointly oppose the establishment. Harrington (Ed. After the representatives "undertook the reform of the Church", the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was passed. The basic causes of the French Revolution were rooted in the rigidities of French society in the 18th century. The Enlightenment ideas were particularly popularised by the influence of the American War of Independence on the soldiers who returned, and of Benjamin Franklinhi…  The parlements enjoyed wider support from the commoners, who appreciated their role as a check on royal power. , There are two main points of view with regard to cultural change as a cause of the French Revolution: the direct influence of Enlightenment ideas on French citizens, meaning that they valued the ideas of liberty and equality discussed by Rousseau and Voltaire et al, or the indirect influence of the Enlightenment insofar as it created a "philosophical society". However, by 1787, Louis XVI could not get this tactic to work. , Encyclopædia Britannica cites Prussia as an example of a European state where a strong monarchy succeeded in preventing revolution and preserving its power through reforms from above. Agricultural Revolution in Britain. Sources of Making of the West, People and Cultures, Vol. "The climatic effects of the 1783 Laki eruption" in C.R. Louis XVI, The Silent King. Louis XVI reinstated them early in his reign. .  His affairs with a succession of mistresses also damaged its reputation. The King had unlimited power and he declared himself as the representative of God. Furthermore, many governmental offices and positions were sold to raise cash. They needed salt to flavor and preserve their food. The end of the reign of terror was marked by the behaeding of Robespierre. 1. smith described one exception, though, when governments should get involved. The French Crown's debt was caused by both individual decisions, such as intervention in the American War of Independence and the Seven Years' War, and underlying issues such as an inadequate taxation system.  The power of the parlements had been curtailed by Louis XIV, but mostly reinstated during the minority of Louis XV. This meant that the discontented Third Estate (damaged by poor policy and low standards of living) were given the opportunity to air their grievances, and when they did not receive the desired response, the Revolution proper began; they denied the authority of the King and set up their own government. Historia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo, HISTORIA DE LA SEGURIDAD Y SALUD EN EL TRABAJO, Великие путешественники и их географические открытия, LINEA DE TIEMPO SOBRE LOS SISTEMAS OPERATIVOS, HISTORIA DEL CALIBRADOR VERNIER O PIE DE REY, LÍNEA DEL TIEMPO: SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL. History, 21.06.2019 12:30. The vingtième ("twentieth"), a tax of 5% successfully imposed on the nobility, was indeed paid, but this additional revenue was nowhere near enough to allow the Crown to maintain the levels of spending it needed or wanted. 2, Since 1340. A debate on economic reform and policy in 18th Century France. For over a year violence erupted in France. This was enabled by several factors. In 1778, Louis XVI decided to support the American Revolution. In 1770, Louis XV and René de Maupeou again curtailed the power of the parlements, except for the Parlement of Paris, the one which was the most powerful. Fearing they would be forced to bear the burden of the financi… The capitation ("head tax") was also imposed, a tax that varied with social status and the number of people in the family, but this too was insufficient. One school of interpretation maintains that French society under the ancien régime was rent by class war. 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